Selected Rules - 1965

Selected rules from the 1965 New Zealand Government Railways Rules And Regulations. For the complete set of rules download the pdf version of the 1965 rules.

The source document has been updated to 1979. I have not identified the issue date of each rule quoted below. The rules should therefore be read as typical of those in force in the period 1965 - 1979.



Click on the rule you wish to read:

1   The first rule
2   Definitions
6   Special Precautions for Safe Operation
8   Colours and Indications of Signals
9   Hand Signals
10  Hand Signals - Details
11  Hand Signals (in absence of flags)
13  Detonator Signals
66  Signalling During Adverse Weather Conditions
85 Working Double Line Traffic Over A Single Line: Pilot Working
86 Method of Instituting Pilot Working
87 Relieving Staff Concerned in Pilot Working
88 Dispatch of Trains By Pilotman
89 Additional Precautions
90 Pilot Working During Poor Visibility
91 Precautions When Running Wrong Line
92 Transfer of Traffic When Both Lines Blocked
93 Train Disabled When Single-Line Working in Force
94 Method of Cancelling Pilot Working

95 Pilot Working on Single Lines
98  Defective Signals and Points
128 Train in the Charge of Guard
129 Guard's Knowledge of Line
130 Guard to Ensure Train Safe to Run
131 Guard's Duty en route
132 Stopping Train in Case of Accident
134 Signals in Connection with Starting of Trains
141 Trains Stopping on Bridges or in Tunnels
142 Trains Overrunning or Stopping Short of Platform
143 Guard's Duties in Case of Accident
144 Guard May Command Assistance
145 Protection of Trains Losing Time on Open Section
146 Fires on Trains
148 Apply Brakes Whistle to be Obeyed
149 Train Parting While in Motion
150 Controlling Speed on Steep Gradients



1. The first and most important duty of every employee is to provide for the safety of the public and other employees.


2. Definitions -In this book the following terms shall, unless inconsistent with the context, have the meanings set against them respectively:
(a) Officer Controlling Train-running: The District Traffic Manager or officer authorised by him to control train-running in areas specified in the working timetables or train advices.
(b) Officer in Charge: The Stationmaster or other employee who is in charge for the time being of the station, siding, or other place.
(c) Signalman: Any employee authorised to signal trains and for the time being in charge of the signalling of trains at a station. A Centralised Traffic Control Panel Operator is the Signalman for each interlocked station in his area while it is under his control.
(d) Main Line: The principal line of any railway
(e) Crossing Loop: A loop line directly connected to the main line and provided for crossing trains.
(f) Sidings: All lines other than main lines and crossing loops.
(g) Signal box: Any place where signal levers are fixed; or, where no signal levers are provided, the place where the safe-working appliances are located.
(h) Station Limits: In Single Line areas with fixed signals station limits include all lines within the Home signals, or Outer Home or Arrival Signals. Where fixed signals are not provided, station limits include all lines within the first facing points met approaching the station on the main line from either direction unless otherwise defined by notice boards.
In Double line areas Station limits include all lines within the Home signals and also the line from the Outer Home signal and up to the Advanced Starting signal.
(i) Open Section: A section of line operated strictly in accordance with the working timetable and train advices, and where tablet working or automatic signalling is not provided.
(j) Train: A locomotive, or 1ocomotives coupled with or without vehicles attached, or a railcar, or electric multiple-unit, or any other self- propelled rolling stock duly authorised to run as a train.
(k) R.R. Trains: Trains scheduled in the working timetables or train advices as R.R. trains are run only on the special authority of the Officer Controlling Train-running, and are special trains.
(l) Motive Power Unit: A locomotive, railcar or electric multiple unit.
(m) Locomotive-Whistle: Includes any audible warning device installed on motive power units.
(n) Telephone: Includes any device, e.g., radio, which permits two-way verbal communication between two distant points.
(o) Handsignalman: An employee who is appointed to hand signal trains in place of fixed signals.
(p) Pilotman: The employee appointed for Pilot Working in accordance with Rule 86, Automatic Signalling Regulation 28 or Tablet Regulation 33,
(q) Pilot: An employee who ensures the safety of a train or other movement by guiding the driver.
(r) Single Line: Where a main line between two stations is for use by both Up and Down trains, this will be known as "Single Line",
(s) Double Lines: Where there are two main lines between two stations and one is for Up trains only and the other for Down trains only, these will be known as "Double Lines"



SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFE OPERATIONS

6. (a) Staff to Watch for Defects on Trains -Officers in Charge, Signalmen, and other employees in a position to do so must take particular notice of each train as it passes, and if they see anything wrong, such as signals of alarm by passengers, goods falling off, vehicles on fire, or other indication of the probability of danger, they must exhibit a Danger signal and endeavour to attract the attention of the Enginedriver or Guard. If unable to attract attention they must take the most suitable action possible in the interests of safety.

(b) Action when Line Damaged or Obstructed -If any employee should have reason to believe that the line is damaged, or is obstructed or likely to be obstructed, he must take immediate steps to prevent any train from proceeding in the direction of the damaged or obstructed line until the line has been examined and is clear and safe for the passage of trains.

(c) Reporting Adverse Conditions -Train crews and other staff encountering heavy fog, falling snow, unusual rainfall, high winds or any other circumstances likely to affect the safety of operations are to inform the Train Control Operator or, where appropriate, the Officer in Charge or Signalman, at the earliest opportunity.
Where possible, Train Control Operators, Officers in Charge or Signalmen are to arrange for train crews about to enter the area to be informed of the adverse conditions.

(d) Care When Using Radio Communication -When radios are used as a means of verbal communication correct radio procedures as detailed in the Special Instruction of each Branch, must be followed. Messages must be acted upon only by those for whom they are intended after correct identification of sender and receiver.




COLOUR AND INDICATIONS OF SIGNALS


8. Colour and Indications of Signals -

Colour

Indication

Red
Green moved
Green Steady
Yellow
Purple

DANGER - STOP
CAUTION - MOVE SLOWLY
CLEAR - PROCEED
CAUTION - MOVE SLOWLY (as explained in the respective rules and regulations)
Points Indicator. (see Rule 50).




HAND SIGNALS

9. (a) Method of Giving Hand Signals -Hand signals will be made with flags or with the arms by day, and with lamps by night.
(b) Hand lamps and flags when used as signals must be held in the hand, except when they are used for the purpose of marking the actual point of an obstruction.
(c) Employees when signalling must face the locomotive, and the signals must be given from such a position and in such a way that there cannot be any misunderstanding as to the purpose of the hand signal or the train, locomotive, or shunt for which the hand signal is intended. When it is necessary for a Signalman to give a hand signal from a signal box, this must be done by flag or lamp, and the hand signal must be exhibited outside the signal box.
During shunting operations, when conditions of working do not permit of the employee continuously facing the Enginedriver while giving a signal, the employee must satisfy himself that the signal given can be readily seen by one of the locomotive crew.
(d) When exhibiting hand signals for the starting of a train or for calling-on a train past a signal, flags or lamps must be used, except in exceptional circumstances.
(e) Fixed Signals to be Used -Hand signals must not be used where the proper signal can be exhibited by means of fixed signal.
(f) Care must be taken to ensure that persons required to give hand signals are competent and fully equipped to do so.
(g) Glasses in Hand Lamps -The coloured glasses in hand signal lamps must be fixed so that when the front is turned away from the person holding the lamp the red glass in on the right-hand side and the green glass on the left-hand side.
(h) Custody of Equipment -Flags and hand signal lamps must be kept where they will not be available to unauthorised persons.



10. Hand signals will be used to give the following indications:


Signal By Day

Signal By Night

Indication of Signal

(a) A Red Flag (See Fig. 1)

A Red Light (see fig 13)

Danger - Stop

(b) A Green Flag held steadily (see Fig 2)

A Green Light held steadily (see fig 14)

Clear - Proceed

(c) A Green Flag moved slowly up and down (see Fig 3)

A Green Light moved slowly up and down (see fig 15)

Caution - Move slowly

(d) A green Flag moved slowly from side to side across the body (used at stations at which there are no fixed signals for the indication) (See Fig 4) (used at stations at which there are no fixed signals for the indication) (See Fig 4)

A Green Light moved slowly from side to side across the body (used at sations at which there are no fixed signals for the indication) (See Fig 16)

Stop at Station - i.e. come on slowly and stop at station or enter the crossing loop or siding.
When it is necessary for a train to enter the loop or siding and for the Handsignalman to proceed to the points to set the road, the hand signal must be given from the main line points.

(e) A Green Flag moved slowly from side to side across the body (used at stations at which there are no fixed signals for the indication) (See Fig 4)

A Green Light moved slowly from side to side across the body (used at sations at which there are no fixed signals for the indication) (See Fig 16)

Points are properly set for train to proceed from loop or siding to main line; when it is necessary for a train to enter the loop or siding and for the Handsignalman to proceed to the points to set the road, the hand signal must be given from the main line points.

(f) One arm held in a horizontal position (See Fig 6)

A white light held steadily above the level of the head (see fig 19)

Signal of Officer in Charge to Guard that train is authorised to proceed.

(g) Guard blowing his whistle and showing a Green Flag held steadily above the level of the head (see fig 5)

Guard blowing his whistle and showing a Green Light held steadily above the level of the head (see fig 5)

Guard's signal to Engine-driver to start train.

(h) Green Flag held steadily above the level of the head (see fig 5)

Green Light held steadily above the level of the head (see fig 20)

To indicate to locomotive crew when starting that Guard has joined the train (to be acknowledged by a short pop on the locomotive whistle)

(i) A Green Flag moved slowly from side to side across the body (see fig 4)

A Green Light moved slowly from side to side across the body (see fig 16)

Guard's signal to Engine-driver to stop at station

AIR-BRAKE TEST SIGNALS

 

 

(j) Both hands brought smartly together above the head (see fig 11)

A steady Red light, followed by a steady White light, then another steady Red light

Apply Brakes for airbrake test

(k) Both hands held together above the head, and then parted outwards until level with the shoulders (see fig 12)

A steady white light, followed by a steady red light, then another steady white light.

Release brakes for air brake test.

SHUNTING HAND SIGNALS

 

 

(l) Both arms raised above the level of the head, or any unusual signal (see fig 8)

A red light waved quickly or any light waved in an unusual manner

Danger - Emergency Stop

(m) (i) Both arms extended sideways horizontally from the shoulders, (see fig 19), or (ii) One arm raised above the level of the head with fingers outstretched (to be used when shunter has only one hand free)

A steady Red light (see fig 13)

Stop

(n) One arm and hand moved in small circles and indicating the direction in which the hunt is to travel

A Green light moved slowly from side to side across the body (see fig 16)

Come slowly towards the signal

(o) One arm and hand moved in small circles and indicating the direction in which the hunt is to travel

A White light moved slowly from side to side across the body (see fig 18)

Come towards the signal

(p) One arm and hand moved in small circles and indicating the direction in which the hunt is to travel

A green light moved slowly up and down (see fig 15)

Go slowly away from the signal

(q) One arm and hand moved in small circles and indicating the direction in which the hunt is to travel

A white light moved slowly up and down (see fig 17)

Go away from the signal

( r ) Hands brought together as in a clapping movement

A green light moved very slowly from side to side in a small arc

"Ease Up" - Come slowly towards the signal bringing the buffers together

(s) Elbow held at shoulder height'and hand and forearm moved smartly towards and away from the head

A white light moved rapidly from side to side in a small arc

Kicking movement* - Come quickly towards the signal being prepared to stop promptly.

(t) Forearms crossed in front of the chest with the hands open (see fig 10)

A green light moved slowly up and down (see fig 15)

"Pull out and stop short. Go away from the signal being prepared to stop short.

* See also Rule 125 re kicking and slipping movements.


Day Hand Signals;  Night Hand Signals


11. In the absence of flags, -
(a) Both arms raised above the level of the head denotes "Danger - Stop". See Fig 8 on page 16.
(b) One arm repeatedly raised above the head and dropped palm downwards denoted "Caution - Move Slowly". See Fig 7 on page 16.
(c) One arm held in a horizontal position denotes "Clear - Proceed". See Fig 6 on page 16.
In the absence of a red light, -
(d) Any light waved violently denotes "Danger - Stop".



DETONATOR SIGNALS

13. (a) Supply, Issue, and Testing of Detonators -Any Guard, Signalman, Enginedriver, Gate-man, Bridge-keeper, and Crossing-keeper , and any Ganger, Leading Hand, or other person in charge of work in connection with the line, must be provided with a supply of detonators, which he must have ready for use when on duty; and every person in charge of a station must keep a supply of detonators in a suitable place, known and easy of access at all times to every person connected with the station.
All persons above named will be held responsible for maintaining the proper supply of detonators.
Employees in charge of Material Trolleys, Track Maintenance Machines, Mobile Track Equipment, or Trolleys, must see that the machines are not used unless equipped with a supply of detonators.

(b) Detonators must be issued in the order in which they are received, those which have been longest on hand being used first to avoid an accumulation of old stock.

(c) Detonators must be withdrawn from stock and returned to the officer who supplied them when they are three years old or when showing any signs of rust on the outside of the case.

(d) Detonators must be carefully handled as they are liable to explode if roughly treated. It is necessary to keep them well protected from damp and in the containers supplied for the purpose.

(e) In order to ensure that detonators are in good condition employees must test one detonator from their stocks at intervals of not more than six months.
While the test is being made care must be taken to ensure that no person is exposed to injury from flying fragments.

(f) If a detonator should fail to explode when a train passes over it the circumstances must be promptly reported to the officer from whom the detonator was obtained, and the defective detonator forwarded to him for examination.

(g) Employees in charge of trolleys or velocipedes must replace detonators which they remove from the rails for the passage of the machines, and they must renew any detonators which have been accidentally exploded.

14. (a) Use and Placing of Detonators -Where the use of detonators is prescribed by any rule, regulation, or instruction, they must be used both by day and by night.
The detonators must be placed in pairs (one on each rail and directly opposite each other so that they will be exploded simultaneously), label upwards, as nearly as possible in the centre of the rail, with the clasps bent round the upper flange of the rail.

(b) Caution Signal -When a train explodes either one or two pairs of detonators the Enginedriver must immediately cut off power, reduce speed, and bring his train under such control as will enable him to stop at once if required, and then proceed cautiously to the defective place, or until he receives a further signal for his guidance.

(c) Danger Signal -When a train explodes a group of three or more pairs of detonators the Enginedriver must immediately stop the train, which must remain stationary until he has ascertained the nature of the obstruction, when he must act as the circumstances of the case may require.



66. (a) Night Signals to be Used by Day When Necessary-When, owing to fog, falling snow, or other cause, the various signals for use by night give better indications by day than the usual day signals, the night signals must be used.

(b) Stationing of Handsignalmen During Poor Visibility-When weather conditions affect visibility and signals cannot be clearly seen, Officers in Charge or Signalmen must arrange for Handsignalmen to be placed as may be necessary. Where appointed, Handsignalmen must see that nothing interferes with the correct working of signals and points for which they are responsible and must also place three pairs of detonators 10 metres apart on the line to which the signals apply.

(c) Stopping Train When Handsignalmen Not On Duty-To stop a train when Handsignalmen are not on duty a Signalman must keep the fixed signals at "Stop" and in addition, must place or arrange to have placed three pairs of detonators, 10 metres apart, on the line to which the signals apply.



WORKING DOUBLE-LINE TRAFFIC OVER A SINGLE LINE: PILOT WORKING

85. When it is necessary to work the traffic of a double line in both directions over a single line, unless otherwise authorised by the Officer Controlling Train-running, pilot working must be instituted. Pilot working sections should be kept as short as possible, and switch-out stations provided with a crossover road should, when practicable, be switched in for this purpose.

The institution of pilot working will be authorised by train advice.

Method of Instituting Pilot Working

86. (a) Preparation of Mis. 33 forms- The Officer in Charge who is instituting pilot working must prepare a sufficient number of Mis. 33 pilot-working forms (see specimen on page 59) for delivery to all employees concerned in the single-line working in accordance with the following:

  1. The Officer in Charge must retain one form, hand one form to the Signalman, and deliver the remainder of the forms to the Pilotman;
  2. The Pilotman must deliver one form each to the Officer in Charge and the Signalman at any intermediate station which may be open and at the station at the other end of the section or, when there is an obstruction in the section, to the Officer in Charge at the point of obstruction;
  3. Each employee who receives a pilot-working form must sign both his own form and the form held by the Pilotman;
  4. The Pilotman must sign all forms;
    (v) Except as provided in (vi) hereof signatures must not be obtained by telegraph; there must be a personal delivery of the forms by the Pilotman;
  5. When the signals at a station are controlled from another locality, and the Officer Controlling Train Running so directs, particulars of the Signalman's copy of the pilot-working form may be telegraphed to the Signalman by the member responsible for delivering it. The particulars must be entered on a Mis. 33 pilot-working form by the Signalman and repeated back to the member sending them. The Pilotman wil then enter the Signalman's name on his own copy. The particulars must be telegraphed from the station at which the signals concerned are located.

Trains may then be allowed to pass over the single line, but only by the permission and under the control of the Pilotman.

Pilotman's Authority-The Pilotman must not authorise any train to depart without the concurrence of the Officer in Charge, Signalman, Guard, and, when communications permit, Train Control Operator.

(b) Pilotman's First Journey-In instituting pilot working the first journey must, unless otherwise authorised by the Officer Controlling Train-running, be made by rail or alongside the railway where the Pilotman has a good view of the line. When a train is available travelling in the right direction for the line that is open, the Pilotman, with the forms, may travel by it.

After the Pilotman has commenced his first journey in instituting pilot working, under no circumstances must a train be allowed to run over the unobstructed line in either direction until the Pilotman's copy of the pilot-working form has been signed by the Signalman at each end of the single-line section and at any intermediate signal box.

(c) Advising all Concerned re Pilot Working-On his way to commence pilot working the Pilotman must verbally inform the employees in charge of level crossings, Surfacemen, and any other men at work on the line, that pilot working is about to be commenced and which line will be used.

The Signalman at each end of the single-line section must know the man appointed as Pilotman. The Pilotman must show himself to Handsignalmen when on duty and, except where pilot working arrangements are instituted in accordance with Rule 86 (a) (vi). to the Signalman at each signal box.

Officers in Charge at stations where pilot working is in operation will be held responsible for seeing that all concerned at their stations are immediately advised of the arrangements in force and are instructed in the necessary duties; when possible, they must also keep the Officer Controlling Train-running fully advised of the position.

(d) Pilotman's Badge -The Pilotman must wear round his left arm, above the elbow, a distinctive badge, which is a Red armlet with "Pilot- man" in White letters upon it. If the badge cannot be obtained the Pilotman must wear a red flag tied round his left arm, above the elbow.

(e) Stations Opened During Pilot Working- Should an intermediate signal box or station be opened after pilot working has commenced the Pilotman must, as soon as practicable, advise the Officer in Charge at such place that pilot working is in operation. He must also deliver pilot-working forms, signed by the Officer in Charge for the time being at the station at which pilot working was originally instituted, and by himself, to the Officer in Charge and the Signalman concerned.

Relieving Staff Concerned in Pilot Working

87. (a) Relieving Pilotman -When it is necessary to relieve a Pilotman new forms on which the name of the new Pilotman has been inserted must be delivered by the employee appointed to relieve the Pilotman and substituted for the old forms, and the necessary signatures obtained on the new forms in the presence of the Pilotman. The new forms must be issued by the Officer in Charge for the time being at the station at which pilot working was originally instituted, to whom the new Pilotman must afterwards deliver the old forms. The man appointed originally as Pilotman must continue to act as such until the man appointed to relieve him has obtained the signatures of all concerned on the new forms and has collected and cancelled the old forms.

After one Pilotman has been relieved by another the Pilotman who has been relieved must not ride with an Enginedriver unless he resumes duty as Pilotman.

(b) Relieving Officer in Charge or Signalman-If the Officer in Charge or the Signalman should be changed during the time pilot working is in operation the employee coming on duty must be made acquainted by the employee going off duty with the arrangements in force, and with the man acting as Pilotman; he must, before taking charge of the station or signal box, countersign both the form which was held by the employee going off duty and the form held by the Pilotman. Where pilot working arrangements were instituted in accordance with Rule 86 (a) (vi) the Signalman must advise the Pilotman by telephone particulars of the change of Signalman and the Pilot-working forms must be amended accordingly.

Dispatch of Trains by Pilotman

(a) Pilotman Personally to Dispatch Trains- A train must not enter upon any portion of the single line without the Pilotman being present and riding with the leading Enginedriver, unless two or more trains are required to follow in the same direction, in which instance the Pilotman must furnish the Enginedriver of each train not accompanied by himself with a Mis. 29 pilot ticket (see specimen on page 60) properly filled in and signed. The Pilotman must personally authorise all trains to start, and must himself travel with the leading Enginedriver of the last train.

The pilot ticket will apply only to a single journey to the other end of the single-line section where it must be immediately delivered to the Officer in Charge, who must at once cancel the ticket by writing the word "Cancelled" across the face of it.

The Pilotman must not authorise any train to depart without the concurrence of the Officer in Charge, Signalman, Guard, and, when communications permit, Train Control Operator.

(b) Train to be Clear Before Next is Started -Where communication by telegraph or telephone exists the arrival of each train unaccompanied by the Pilotman must be telegraphed to the Pilotman by the Officer in Charge at the other end of the section, and (except as provided in clause (d) hereof, or by special authority of the Officer Controlling Train-running), the Pilotman must not dispatch another train until he has received the telegram stating that the preceding train has arrived.

(c) Interval Between Trains When no Communication -Where communication by telegraph or telephone does not exist and the Pilotman cannot otherwise satisfy himself that the section is clear, a train must not be allowed to follow another train until the ordinary running time of the section has elapsed (except as provided in clause (d) hereof or by special authority of the Officer Controlling Train-running) and the Engine-driver has been advised of the nature and departure time of the preceding train.

Working Intermediate Sidings -Where communication does not exist intermediate sidings must be worked only by trains accompanied by the Pilotman.

(d) Use of Automatic Signals-Where automatic signalling is in operation trains running in the right direction may enter upon the single line on the Pilotman's authority (with the concurrence of the Officer in Charge and the Signalman) when the signal shows that the section ahead is clear, and the running of trains thriough the section will be governed by the signals. The signals controlling entry to the singleline section must not be placed at "Proceed" unless authorised by the Pilotman.

Signals applicable to the obstructed line will not apply to trains on the single line.

Additional Precautions

89. (a) Warning Enginedrivers-Whilst pilot working is in operation the Officer in Charge at each end of the single line section must stop each train and tell the Enginedriver that pilot working is in operation and the section over which it is operating.

(b) Protecting Obstructed Line-The Officer in Charge at each end of the obstructed section must place three detonators, 10 metres apart on each rail, and a Red flag by day, or a Red light by night, at the end of the obstructed line, a short distance inside the point where single-line working commences.

(c) Any fixed signal controlling entry to the obstructed line must be kept at "Stop" during single-line working.

(d) Signals Approaching Single-line Section -Where possible single-line working should be confined to a section at the terminal points of which there are fixed signals with a crossover road. In the event of a crossover road not protected by fixed signals being used for single-line working, a competent man with the necessary hand signals and detonators must be placed at least 800 metres beyond the crossover road to signal in place of a Distant signal, and another man (simiarly equipped) at the crossover road to signal in place of a Home signal.

Should the distance of 800metres fall within a tunnel or in any other position where the Enginedriver of an approaching train would be unable to obtain a good and distant view of the hand signal, or if the crossover road is situated on or near the foot of a gradient, the detonator must be placed on the rails and the signal exhibited at a distance of 1,200 metres from the crossover road, or at such distance over 1,200 metres as may be necessary to ensure the Enginedriver obtaining a clear view of the signal.

The man who acts as the Distant signal must stop any approaching train and inform the Enginedriver that the train must proceed slowly towards the man acting as the Home signal, who will exhibit a Clear or Danger hand signal, as authorised by the Pilotman, to any train entering the single-line section.

(e) Signals Leaving Single-line Section -A Handsignalman, if necessary, must be stationed at the crossover road for the purpose of signalling any train crossing from the single line on to the proper line, and must exhibit a Danger hand signal to stop any train approaching on the single line. until he receives instructions from the Signalman to allow the train to draw forward, when he must exhibit a Clear hand signal

The Handsignalman must see that the points are secured in the proper position for the passage of each train.

(f) Fouling of Crossover -The crossover roads at the ends of a single line must not be fouled, except with the concurrence of the Signalman and Pilotman.

(g) Recording of Messages- All telegraph or telephone messages sent or received in connection with the single-line working must be written on the usual telegraph forms; telephone messages must be repeated back by the person receiving them.

90. Pilot Working During Poor Visibility -When weather conditions affect visibility and signals cannot be clearly seen, the Officers in Charge at both ends of the single-line section, in conjunction with the Pilotman, must arrange for the placing of Handsignalmen as may be necessary. Handsignalmen must also place detonator signals.

91. (a) Precautions When Running on Wrong Line-Enginedrivers of trains running in the wrong direction must be cautious and must make frequent use of the locomotive whistle, particularly approaching level crossings. After or near sunset or during fog or falling snow or when passing through a tunnel, a Red light in addition to the head lamp must be shown in a forward direction from the front of the train.

When a train is running on the wrong line the Enginedriver must reduce speed to 10km/h over level crossings knowing that the road traffic is not aware of the unusual conditions and that warning devices, where provided,will not be in operation.

(b) Security of Points -Points which become facing points to trains running over the single line must be so secured that trains may pass safely over them, and Pilotmen must satisfy themselves that Engindrivers are aware of tho location of such points. Enginedrivers must not pass the points until they have assured themselves that tho points are correctly set; or, where a man is employed at the points, until thoy have received a Clear hand signal from him.

Transfer of Traffic When Both Lines Blocked

92. When both lines are blocked the obstruction must be fully protected on both sides. When it becomes necessary to work trains up to the obstruction on both sides a competent member must, be placed in charge, of traffic working at the obstruction, and the Officer in Charge at the station on each side of the obstruction, where there is a crossover road, must arrange for pilot working to be instituted between the crossover road and the obstruction.

When one line is cleared arrangements must be made for the cancellation of pilot working up to the obstruction, and for the institution of pilot working between the crossover roads on each side of the obstruction: Both Pilotmen must proceed with the first train over the line which has been cleared, and the person who is appointed Pilotman for the cleared line must withdraw all the pilot-working forms previously in use at the same time as he delivers the new forms.

Train Disabled when Single-line Working In Force

93. (a) When a train accompanied by a Pilotman is disabled the Guard Enginedriver, and Pilotman must confer and make arrangements for procuring assistance without delay.

(b) When a train unaccompanied by a Pilotman is disabled the Guard must communicate with the Pilotman as soon as possible.

(c) In each instance the necessary protection must be provided immediately and be maintained until the whole of the train has been removed from the section.

Method of Cancelling Pilot Working

94. When the member of the Way and Works Branch who is in charge of work at the obstruction advises that the line is again clear and safe for traffic, the Officer in Charge for the time being at the station at which pilot working was originally instituted, provided there are no trains on the section which had been obstructed, must cancel pilot working by telegraphic advice to the Pilotman and to each employee who received a pilot-working form.

Each employee receiving the telegraphic advice must at once acknowledge receipt, by telegraph when necessary.

Upon receipt of all acknowledgements the Officer in Charge must advise the Officer Controlling Train Running that pilot working has been cancelled. A train advice must then be issued authorising normal running to be resumed.

The Pilotman, if required to return to his home station after pilot working has been cancelled, must not (except in the case of a light locomotive travel on the locomotive of the train.

Upon receipt of the cancellation telegram each pilot-working form must be cancelled and returned to the Officer in Charge who issued it. The Officer in Charge at the other end of the section must collect all cancelled pilot-working forms held at his station and return them by the Pilotman or by value letter.

When making his last trip under single-line conditions the Pilotman must, when possible, advise all the employees concerned along the line that double-line working is being restored.

All forms which have been issued for the single-line working and copies of an telegraph or telephone messages exchanged, together with reports on the subject, must be forwarded to the District Traffic Manager.

Pilot Working on Single Lines

95. The procedure for instituting pilot working on single lines must be in accordance with the regulations for working single lines by tablet or automatic signalling, as the case may be.



DEFECTIVE SIGNALS, POINTS, ETC.

98. (a) Maintainer to be Advised -In the event of the failure or irregular working of any signal, or interlocked or frame lever operated points, the Signal Maintainer for the area must be promptly advised by the most expeditious means available.

(b) Defective Signal Which Can Be Placed at "Stop" -When a fixed signal is defective but can be placed at "Stop", it must be secured in that position and a competent Handsignalman appointed, as required by the Signalman.
When a train or shunting service is required to proceed past the signal, the Signalman must authorise the Handsignalman to exhibit a Clear or Caution hand signal at the defective signal to the Enginedriver, and this will be his authority to pass the signal at "Stop".
When a colour light signal has failed and a "Proceed" indication cannot be obtained the signalman, before authorising a train or shunting movement to pass the signal at "Stop", must place the lever controlling the signal in the proceed position. When the train or shunting movement has passed the signal the lever must be returned to the normal position.

(c) Defective Signal Which Cannot be Placed at "Stop" -When a fixed signal becomes defective and cannot be secured at "Stop" the light of the signal must be extinguished or obscured and a competent Handsignalman appointed.
The Handsignalman must place three detonators, 10 metres apart, on each rail at the defective signal. He must also proceed sufficient distance from the defective signal to stop any approaching train before it reaches the signal and there place two detonators, 10 metres apart, on each rail and exhibit his Danger hand signal. He must keep the detonators on the rails and the hand signal exhibited until instructed by the Signalman to remove them in order to permit a train to proceed.
When the Signalman authorises a train to proceed the Handsignalman must remove the detonators and exhibit a Clear or Caution hand signal at the defective signal as authority for the train to proceed.

(d) Defective Distant or "Stop and Proceed" Signal -When a defective Distant signal cannot be placed at "Caution" or a Stop and Proceed signal at "Caution" or "Stop", the light of the signal must be extinguished or obscured and a Handsignalman appointed, who, unless he has received instructions to the contrary from the Signalman, must stop any approaching train before it reaches the signal, inform the Enginedriver of the circumstances, and then allow the train to proceed.

(e) Warning of Approaching Trains -The Signalman at the signal box in the rear must be advised of defective signals which cannot be placed in the normal position, and he must advise Enginedrivers of all trains proceeding in the direction of the defective signals of the circumstances.

(f) A Distant Signal which relates to a defective Home or Outer Home signal must be kept at "Caution".

(g) When Interlocking Defective -When interlocking apparatus or points, bolts, or bars are out of order a Handsignalman must be appointed and the signals applicable to the lines affected must be kept at "Stop". Facing points, except when required to be otherwise set for the passing of traffic, must be set so that a train cannot cross the path of another train.

(h) Selection and Appointment of Handsignalman -Only employees who hold a current Traffic Branch qualification for "Emergency Working Procedures" may be appointed as Handsignalmen. Current lists of local employees qualified to work as Handsignalmen must be exhibited in all signal boxes and other suitable locations as directed by the District Traffic Manager.
Before a Handsignalman commences duty the Signalman must ensure that the Handsignalman:
(1) Holds a current Traffic Branch qualification for "Emergency Working Procedures".
(2) Is fully equipped with lamps, flags, detonators and any other equipment he will require.
(3) Fully understands what he is required to do.
When necessary one or more employees must be appointed for the purpose of repeating (by hand signals, or otherwise as directed) messages between the Signalman and any Handsignalman.

(i) Duties of Handsignalmen -Handsignalmen must work under the instructions of the Signalman only, and must advise the Signalman when his instructions have been carried out. They must communicate with the Signalman as often as and by whatever means the Signalman directs.
The Handsignalman must not allow any train to pass until directed by the Signalman. He must always ascertain from the Signalman which train he is to signal forward. If that train is to pass over points he must inform the Signalman of the identity and setting of such points and satisfy him that they are set and secured for the line on which the train is to run. before the Signalman instructs him to signal the train forward.

(j) Isolating Motor Points -When the train is required to pass over motor-operated points the Signalman (except where local instrutions provide for the acceptance of panel indications as proof of the setting and security of points) must arrange for the electric power to be cut off (isolated) from the points motor and for the points to be hand operated to the required position before authorising the Handsignalman to signal the train forward. The points must remain isolated while trains are passing over them.


SIGNALLING DURING ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

128. Train in the Charge of Guard -A train is in the charge of the Guard, who is equally responsible with the Enginedriver for its safe running, and the Enginedriver and Assisting Guards must obey his instructions as to the working of the train.



129. Guard's Knowledge of Line -A member who is placed in charge of a train as Guard must be well acquainted with the line over which he has to travel and with the special instructions for working that portion of the line.


130. (a) Guard to Ensure Train Safe to Run -A Guard in charge of a train must satisfy himself before starting and during the journey that the train is properly marshalled, coupled, and complete with lamps and signals; that wagons are properly loaded, lashed, and sheeted; that the brakes are in good working order; that carriage gates and gangways and wagon doors are in place and secured, and that the train is in a proper condition for travelling. He must also carefully examine the loading of any vehicle he may attach on the journey. If any vehicle is unsafe through improper loading, or has become unsafe through the shifting of the load or any other cause, he must arrange to have the load adjusted or the vehicle removed from the train.
(b) Guards Shunting at Unattended Stations -At places where an employee is not on duty, Guards who shunt their trains must see that all vehicles remaining at such places are placed within stop blocks or safety points and are properly secured; also that stop blocks are locked across the rail, safety points locked against the main line, and all main line points set for the main line and locked immediately shunting is finished.

131. Guard's Duty en route -Guards must carefully observe the running of their trains when approaching junctions and stations at which they are timed to stop, and be prepared to take any action that may be necessary. They must also keep a good iookout on other parts of the journey when not engaged with other necessary duties.


132. (a) Stopping Train in Case of Accident -In the event of any failure of, or accident to, a part of a train, it will generally be found desirable to bring the train to a stand as quickly as possible, but in this respect Enginedrivers and Guards must use their best judgment and ability in the circumstances in which they are placed.

(b) If a vehicle becomes derailed on a train on which the automatic air brake is not in operation, the brakes in the rear of the vehicle must be immediately applied in order to keep the couplings tight until the train is brought slowly to a stand. The brakes in front of the derailed vehicle must be applied with great care.
An Enginedriver who observes a derailed vehicle on a train must whistle for brakes.


134. (a) Signals in Connection with Starting of Trains -An Enginedriver must not start his train until he has received verbal advice or other proper signal from the Guard. The Guard before giving such signal or advice must obtain permission to leave from the Officer in Charge either verbally or by a signal in accordance with Rule 10.

(b) Where there are no fixed signals controlling the departure of trains, and points are operated from a signal box, the Officer in Charge, before giving the Guard permission to start the train, must satisfy himself that the points are correctly set. In this case the Guard's advice or signal to the Enginedriver will be an indication to the latter that the points are correctly set. When in a position to do so the Enginedriver must keep a lookout to see that the points are correctly set before passing over them.

(c) At unattended stations the Guard must satisfy himself that all is right to proceed before giving the advice or signal.

(d) The Enginedriver, on receiving the Guard's advice or signal, must sound the locomotive whistle before starting.

(e) Where there are fixed signals controlling the departure of trains the Enginedriver must satisfy himself that the correct signals are at "Proceed" and that the line before him is clear before starting.

(f) Signal that Guard has Joined Train -The Guard must also advise the Enginedriver either verbally or by proper signal when he has joined the train. The Enginedriver must acknowledge this either verbally or with a short pop of the locomotive whistle.

The Guard must exhibit the signal from the side upon which the locomotive crew will have the better view of the signal.
In the case of railcars and multiple-unit trains the signal that the Guard has joined the train is not required.

(g) Train Checked or Stopped at Signal -When a train has been checked or stopped at a signal the Enginedriver must sound a short whistle immediately the signal is set at "Proceed", if the train is stopped within station limits it must not start until the Enginedriver receives advice or other signal from the Guard.


141. Trains Stopping on Bridges or in Tunnels-A train conveying passengers must not be stopped with the carriages standing on any bridge which is not completely decked and provided with footpaths on both sides of the line; the train must be stopped with the carriages short of the bridge if it cannot cross before coming to a stand.
When carriages containing passengers are stopped in a tunnel every endeavour must be made to move the carriages clear of the tunnel as quickly as possible.


142.Train Overrunning or Stopping Short of Platform - When a train conveying passengers overruns or stops short of the platform at an attended station it must not be moved until the Guard has conferred with the Officer in Charge. If the train is to be moved staff concerned must first ensure that passengers will not attempt to leave the carriages whilst the train is in motion. The Guard will then give the necessary instructions to the Enginedriver to move the train. At unattended stations the Guard must advise passengers when the train will be moved, before instructing the Enginedriver. The Enginedriver must sound the whistle before moving the train. When a train overruns a platform in an automatic signalling area it may be set back only in accordance with Automatic Signalling Regulation 4 (b).


143. Guard's Duties in Case of Accident -In all instances of accident or detention to a train the Guard must at once endeavour to secure the safety and comfort of passengers, and if he leaves his train for the purpose of protecting it, he must assure himself that it is securely braked, and that the brakes are left in the charge of some competent person. It is the duty of the Guard to explain to the passengers the cause of detention, and, if there is no danger, to advise them accordingly.


144. Guard May Command Assistance -In case of necessity the Guard may at any time command the assistance of any employee.


145. Protection or Trains Losing Time on Open Section-In Open Section areas, when a train is losing time and encroaches within fifteen minutes of a following train which may overtake it, the Guard of the first train must place two detonators on each line to warn the Engine- driver of the following train that the train ahead is losing time.


146. Fires on Trains- If a vehicle on a train is on fire, the train crew must use their judgment as to the best course to pursue, taking into consideration the proximity of water tanks and fire-fighting appllances, the nature of the goods in the vehicle, and the danger' to adjacent bridges and vehicles.
For special instructions in reference to the conveyance of explosives and inflammable liquids, see Rules 234--239.


148. Apply Brakes Whistle to be Obeyed- When the Enginedriver whistles for brakes the Guard must immediately apply them, whether or not he understands the Enginedriver's reason for giving the signal.


149. Train Parting Whilst in Motion -If a portion of a train on which the automatic air brake is not in operation becomes detached when the train is in motion, judgment must be exercised; the front portion should not be stopped, provided the line ahead is clear, until the rear portion is running slowly or has stopped.
If approaching a station or signal box the Enginedriver must sound the Train Parted whistle signal, and observe and obey signals that may be exhibited for his guidance.
The Guard must use every endeavour to stop the detached portion promptly.
The Signalman must not stop the front portion when the line is clear for it to proceed beyond the signals, but must use his best judgment to prevent a collision between the two parts of the divided train, if necessary diverting either portion into a siding.


150.(a) Controlling Trains on Steep Gradients -If it is found necessary to reduce the speed of a train to ensure control when running down a steep gradient the Enginedriver must reduce speed before the gradient commences; if the train is too heavy for the ordinary brake power , sufficient hand brakes must be applied, the train being brought to a stand, if necessary, at the top of the gradient for that purpose.

(b) Trains on which the automatic air brake is not in operation should not be stopped on steep gradients; if, however, a train is stopped, the Guard must apply hand brakes sufficient to hold it.

If a train on which the automatic air brake is not in operation is moving slowly when ascending a steep gradient the Guard must remain at the van handbrake to apply it if necessary.

(c) Detaching Train Locomotive on Gradient - Should it be necessary to detach locomotive or front portion of a train on a gradient the employee uncoupling the train must first apply sufficient hand brakes to hold the train or remaining portion stationary, and the locomotive must draw away gradually under signals from the Guard or Assisting Guard.




Last Updated: Saturday, December 31, 2005

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